Jennifer Abrams:  Born in 1972, Abrams decided as a teenager that she did not like to drink, but she often felt uncomfortable at parties where others were drinking.  Some of her friends would urge her to have a fe drinks.  Then a fellow college student, riding as a passenger in a car, died when a drunken driver veered from the highway and hit a telephone pole.  Abrams and her friends developed a "designated driver" program on campus and presented workshops on the high costs of drinking and driving.

     Pedro Alvarez:  Born in 1960, Alvarez and his cousin own a popular restaurant in Tuscon.  Beer and wine are on their menu.  Alvarez and his cousin know that they must watch customers carefully and not serve alcohol to anyone who appears to be intoxicated.  They might be held liable if one of their customers becomes intoxicated at the restaurant and then causes damage or hurts people in an accident.  The local chapter of MADD has asked Alvarez to donate money to support their programs and to post information about drunken driving in the lobby of the restaurant.

     Oscar Alberts:  Born in 1950, Alberts drives a truck for a Boston beverage distributor.  He enjoys drinking beer with friends while watching football games on the weekend.  Although Alberts is a large man  and has always tried to drink in moderation, a few years ago he bumped into the neighbor's garage while trying to park his car after an afternoon at a friend's house.  He was not hurt, but the incident startled him.  A local MADD chapter asked Albert's employer to tie red ribbons on the trucks' antennas and to display "Designate A Driver" posters on the sides of the trucks.

     Louise Chen:  Born in 1965, Chen is a highway patrol officer in California.  She considers herself to be an expert on California wines and enjoys visiting the vineyards of Sonoma Valley.  In her five-year career, she has handled dozens of drunk driving incidents, some involving fatalities.  She volunteers to speak to high school students during her free time and often speaks on panels with surviving victims of drunk driving accidents.


  1. Who in the above group is likely to support MADD and to participate in "designated driver" programs?  What incentives would they have to support MADD?
  1. Who might not support MADD, or might drink and drive?  What incentives would they have for drinking and driving?
  1. How hard do you think it is to implement MADD programs and to decrease drinking and driving?  What costs are involved in such programs?
  1. Based on the analysis of the group above, and your own analysis, how likely do you think it is that MADD can achieve its goal of decreasing the number of people who drink and drive?  Frame your answer in the form of a hypothesis.  Give the outcomes that you expect and the reasons that you have for anticipating those outcomes.

From United States History:  Focus on Economics, @ National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY

Prohibition then, MADD today: Economics Lesson