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USA National Standards for Concept "Inflation"

NATIONAL STANDARD 19 - UNEMPLOYMENT AND INFLATION: Students will understand that: Unemployment imposes costs on individuals and the overall economy. Inflation, both expected and unexpected, also imposes costs on individuals and the overall economy. Unemployment increases during recessions and decreases during recoveries.

Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Make informed decisions by anticipating the consequences of inflation and unemployment.

Inflation and unemployment are important because they affect national levels of economic growth and standards of living. Some aspects of inflation and unemployment can be addressed with public policies. Various political leaders and parties often have different ideas about which policies should be followed to deal with inflation and unemployment, however. The controversial policies, and the fact that almost everyone is affected by unemployment or inflation, explain why these two problems and alternative approaches to combat them are so widely reported in the news media, and why understanding them is important to people in a democratic political system.

You can find additional online lessons on US Standard 19 from the Council for Economic Education Website.



NATIONAL STANDARD 20 - FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICY: Students will understand that: Federal government budgetary policy and the Federal Reserve System?s monetary policy influence the overall levels of employment, output, and prices.

Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Anticipate the impact of federal government and Federal Reserve System macroeconomic policy decisions on themselves and others.

The U.S. federal government's taxation and spending policies, and the Federal Reserve System's monetary policies affect the nation's overall levels of employment, output, and prices. However, many government taxation and spending activities are undertaken for other reasons, as well. Government expenditures for national defense, human services, and other purposes are made to meet specific objectives and not primarily because of their fiscal policy effects. Other important objectives must be merged with the goals of full employment, price stability, and economic growth. Therefore, government programs may have contradictory effects upon employment and inflation. Understanding these effects is complicated also by the time lags that occur before action taken pursuant to a specific policy begins to affect overall levels of employment, output, and prices.

In spite of these difficulties, policy makers and the general public continue to examine and debate the overall stabilization effects of public policy actions, because the consequences are so important. Citizens should understand the role of conflicting objectives and the limitations on the effectiveness of economic stabilization policies in order to develop realistic expectations about what can be accomplished with taxation, spending, and monetary policies.

You can find additional online lessons on US Standard 20 from the Council for Economic Education Website.