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USA National Standards for Concept "Spending"

NATIONAL STANDARD 7 - MARKETS AND PRICES: Students will understand that: A market exists when buyers and sellers interact. This interaction determines market prices and thereby allocates scarce goods and services.

Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Identify markets in which they have participated as a buyer and as a seller and describe how the interaction of all buyers and sellers influences prices. Also, predict how prices change when there is either a shortage or surplus of the product available.

In market economies there is no central planning agency that decides how many different kinds of sandwiches are provided for lunch every day at restaurants and stores, how many loaves of bread are baked, how many toys are produced before the holidays, or what the prices will be for the sandwiches, bread, and toys. Students should understand that, instead, most prices in market economies are established by the interaction between buyers and sellers.

Understanding how market prices and output levels are determined helps people anticipate market opportunities and make better choices as consumers and producers. It will also help them realize that market allocations are impersonal.

You can find additional online lessons on US Standard 7 from the Council for Economic Education Website.

NATIONAL STANDARD 11 - MONEY AND INFLATION: Students will understand that: Money makes it easier to trade, borrow, save, invest, and compare the value of goods and services. The amount of money in the economy affects the overall price level. Inflation is an increase in the overall price level that reduces the value of money.

Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Explain how their lives would be more difficult in a world with no money, or in a world where money sharply lost its value.

Most people would like to have more money. Students, however, often fail to understand that the real value of money is determined by the goods and services money can buy. Doubling the amount of money in an economy overnight would not, by itself, make people better off, because there would still be the same amount of goods and services produced and consumed, only at higher prices. Money is important to an economy, however, because as it replaces barter, it makes exchange less costly. As a result, people are more likely to specialize in what they produce, and then use money to buy whatever they want to consume, this increases the overall levels of production and consumption in a nation.

Understanding what determines the real buying power of money and earnings will help students make better decisions about their jobs and spending. Understanding the importance of money to society will also help them make more informed decisions about national policies related to banking, controlling the supply of money, and inflation.

You can find additional online lessons on US Standard 11 from the Council for Economic Education Website.